Megara is not mentioned at all by Homer, although there are those who propose an identification with Nisa (Iliad 2, 508). In the geometric period (the Doric) Megara was in any case independent and played an important role in establishing a few colonies overseas, such as the city of Megara Hyblaia in 728 BC. and Byzantion in 660 BC. Around 640 BC. a populistic politician Theagenes established himself as tyrant of the city, while his son-in-law Kylon made a (failed) bid for the supremacy of Athens. Megara and Athena both claimed the possession of Salamis, which led to constant struggle until Athens took final control of the island around 570. In 461, Megara, threatened by Corinth, made a temporary alliance with Athens, but later rejoined the Spartans. However, the city never recovered economically from the damage sustained during the Peloponnesian War, even though the fortifications survived long enough to be repaired in 5th century AD. The town itself was located 2 km from the coast, had two separate acropolis (Karia and Alkathous), a port called Nisaia (connected to Megara by the Athenians in 461 by the construction of a double wall) and an islet of Minoa, right in front of it. a harbor. Megara has virtually nothing of ancient monuments, except for the remains of the well house of Theagenes.


Photos above fltr. the skironic rocks on the way from Corinth to Megara; the Skiron tunnel, named (like the rocks) after the mythological thug, who forced passers-by to wash his feet, but in doing so kicked them into the sea, where a carnivorous turtle ate them; the museum of Megara (forbidden to photograph!) Below, the well house of Theagenes, a large cistern.

Right: The shrine to Zeus Aphesios, mentioned by Pausanias 1.44.9. (Plan from Muller BCH 107 (1983), which follows the original interpretation from 1887. The complex consists of a small prostyle temple (A), complete with altar (C?). To the west of this is a larger complex, consisting of a courtyard (H), 3 dining rooms (H2, 5, 6) and several smaller rooms. This complex has been interpreted as both an early Christian monastery and a sanctuary for Asklepios (with an incubation room (I) and an adyton (H 4) By the way, Papachatzis interprets the complex as a garrison post for guarding the Megara-Corinth road.


From left to right: the cult statue of Asclepius and Hygeia of Bryaxis, of Artemis of Bryaxis (or that of Strongylion Pope. 1.40.2), and that of Zeus Olympios of Theokosmos on three coins from Megara from the Roman period. All three images are clickable for an enlarged view. Both coins are taken from Papachatzis.