The Philopappos monument
The so-called Monument of Philopappos is located on the hill south-east of the Acropolis, called Mouseion Hill, also called Philopappos Hill. This monument was built around 115 AD to honor C. Julius Antiochus Philopappos, the grandson of the last king of Commagene. Commagene was considered the most northerly of the districts of Syria, and was west of the Euphrates. The area is now part of Turkey. In 72 AD. The independence of the kingdom was abolished by the Roman emperor Vespasian, and Philopappos was exiled to Athens, where he was granted civil rights. In Athens, Philopappos turned out to be a benefactor of the city, reason for the city to give him permission to build his tomb on top of Mouseion Hill, a very honorable place, from which you have a beautiful view of the Acropolis. The monument is made of white marble. The frieze depicts Philopappos in his chariot, with two niches above the chariot with seated statues of his grandfather Antiochos. The sarcophagus for this prince of Commagene was located behind the niches on the facade.
Mouseion Hill itself has always been part of the defense of the city of Athens, and still contains remains of the Hellenistic fortress constructed by Demetrios Poliorketes. This fort served Demetrios and the later kings of Makedonia as a means of pressure, by encamping a garrison there. The Pnyx is also accessible from Mouseion Hill, the place where the Athenian People’s Assembly met.