The plain of Pheneos is 100 m. higher than the plain of Orchomenos and has no other way out for water that comes from the surrounding mountains and the river Pheniatiko than the sinkholes at the bottom of Mount Oryxis. The water reappears behind the western hills of the Pheneos Plain as the sources of the Ladon River in today’s Lycouria. When the sinks were clogged, the swamp of Pheneos grew into a lake, which, however, could quickly drain again when the sinks opened again, resulting in flooding of the Ladon and the Alpheios. For example, there are long periods in which the plain of Pheneos is a fertile plateau, interspersed with periods in which there is a vast lake. Frazer indicates that in the 19th century around 1806 and 1834 there were dry periods, but in the time between and after (also in his time, 1895) there was another lake.

Few remains of the ancient town of Pheneos (closer to modern Kalivia than to modern Phenéos). Located on a plateau surrounded by the Aroania Mountains and the Kyllene Mountains, it is especially worth seeing for nature lovers. The head and feet of a larger-than-life statue of Hygeia, the daughter of Asklepios, have been found amid the ancient remains of a small temple of Asklepios and are located in the museum of Kalivia. The rest of the statue must have been made of  wood. On top of the hills are some remains of the ancient city walls.

Pausanias does not discuss the Asclepius sanctuary of Pheneos, possibly because it was around 140 BC after its last adaptation. (the time of the sculptor of the cult images) was flooded during one of the high water periods of lake Pheneos and disappeared under the mud.

The Asclepius sanctuary consisted of a double temple plus outbuildings. Nr. 1 on the map consisted of a large platform (10 x 6.10 m.), With an inscription on it: “The images were made under the priesthood of Asclepius of Therilaos, the son of Heroidas,” and “Attalos, the son of Lacharos, from Athens made (them)”. Several pieces of sandals, fingers and a head were found behind this platform. This shows that Asclepius has a possible akrolithic (only head, hands and feet of stone) image, 3 x life size, while Hygeia (whose head is, has had 2 x life size image. The space # 2 has the beautiful had a marble floor that is shown below (also in the Kalivia Museum) In room no. 5 stood a pedestal, much smaller, in front of 2 life-size images, while before that (no. 6) a marble table was found for offerings.

Photos completely above from left to right 1) the plain of Pheneos (photo Wikipedia), 2) the pedestal for the two cult images, 3/4 an overview of the currently visible spaces. Above 6) the head of Hygeia, 7) the marble floor of room No. 2,, 8) the marble table in situ. Floor plan, marble floor and table in situ taken from Papachatzis.